In the democratization paradigm the focus is on the question to what extent media institutions are free from state intervention. In this column, Mingyi Hou questions the usefulness of this paradigm to explain why Chinese public intellectuals seem to be disappearing.
The public sphere has been controlled by humans for years, but in the last decade, there has been a shift from human gatekeepers to algorithmic ones. This essay describes the consequences this algorithmic culture has for the public sphere.
The very thing that has made Facebook great also makes it obsolete. Designed in the very early years of the 21st century and swept up in a wave of tremendous technological developments, Facebook now looks, and feels, almost medieval.
Loads of people got involved in the Paris attacks: perpetrators, Islamic State, victims, and the general public. In this article, these groups of people are brought in relation to online infrastructures.