Actor-Network Theory is a theoretical and methodological approach that sees all social phenomena as the product of network interactions. It is unique in that it recognizes both objects and technologies as network nodes equal with human actants.
Adaptation implies the ability to evolve and change according to changing environments and demands. It is an ongoing process in all parts of the world and can be applied to many different fields. The term arises in regards to, for example, biological processes, technological advancements or reworkings in the arts (film or literature).
Agency in children's literature refers to the empowerment and independence of children's characters. It involves portraying children as active participants in their own lives, capable of making choices, influencing their surroundings, and shaping their destinies.
Algorithmic activism, when intentional, presupposes that the activists not only subscribe to the message they interact with, but also understand the affordances and the algorithmic construction of the medium.
Algorithmic populism refers to a new manifestation and form of populism in the digital age in which politicians use algorithms to construct, claim and redistribute the idea that they are articulating the voice of the people.
Animal rights is the idea that humans "do not have a right to use non-human animals for our own purposes, which include food, clothing, entertainment, and vivisection. This is based on a rejection of speciesism and the knowledge that animals are sentient beings." (Lin 2019)
Arts is originally related to art and as such refers to a skill and to creativity. In antiquity and in medieval European universities seven artes were considered important: grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy. From the 18th and 19th centuries on – the period of Romanticism and upcoming bourgeois society - the artist, the one who makes art, was regarded as someone with a special talent and authentic character.
The ‘Authorized Heritage Discourse’ (AHD) is a concept that was introduced by Laurajane Smith in 2006 to describe how attention is focused on “aesthetically pleasing material objects, sites, places and/or landscapes” through the dominance of “technical and aesthetic experts, and institutionalized in state cultural agencies and amenity societies”.
Cancel Culture encapsulates the acts of withholding support or endorsement from individuals or institutions on social media due to a collective disagreement or disapproval of their actions, beliefs, or behaviors.
Censorship focuses on placing restrictions on activities that bring conflict in human relationships. Censorship has always existed in some form in all societies and is simultaneously viewed as positive or negative (O’Leary et al. (2016).
Childhood is a broad term usually applied to the phase of human development between infancy and adulthood. According to the APA Dictionary of Psychology, childhood is the period between the end of infancy (about 2 years of age) and the onset of puberty, marking the beginning of adolescence (10–12 years of age).
Children’s Literature (often abbreviated as CL) is literature written specifically for children, about children, consumed by children and even written by children. It is often also referred as Children and Young Adult Literature because its general audience is less than eighteen years old but also often addresses people in their mid twenties. For instance, picturebooks and YA novels are important book publishing formats in this literature. However, it is mainly adults who are responsible for the production, distribution and reception of children's books.
Cultural heritage is a “social and political construct encompassing all those places, artefacts and cultural expressions inherited from the past which, because they are seen to reflect and validate our identity as nations, communities, families and even individuals, are worthy of some form of respect and protection.”
Issue mapping is a concept to study the social connections made when actors interact and create bonds. It asks how a matter of “fact” becomes a matter of “concern” when connections are made, and can be an especially fruitful way to study online culture and phenomena.
Dual Readership refers to the process of constructing a work or text, also called crossover literature, which can play to two different levels of understanding for various audiences. This practice is most commonly employed in children’s literature.
Dual screening can be described as "the complex bundle of practices that involve integrating, and switching across and between, live broadcast media and social media” (Vaccari, Chadwick, & O'Loughlin, 2015).
Ecofeminism, as a theoretical framework, delves into the intricate web of oppression, examining the linkages between the subjugation of marginalized communities and the exploitation of the natural world (Warren, 2000). At its core, this perspective underscores the interdependence of various forms of injustice, weaving together the threads that connect the mistreatment of nature, women, animals, and the environment (Gaard, 2009).
ELLA stands for "Ethnographic Linguistic Landscape Analysis", and 2.0 points to the fact that offline signs are followed through to their online dimensions. ELLA 2.0 is, thus, online-offline Ethnographic Linguistic Landscape Analysis.
Etymologically, the word “fiction” is derived from the Latin word “fictus,” which means “form.” According to Searle (1979), works of fiction result from an author's intention to perform a particular sort of illocutionary act. In the same vein, fiction is produced when authors of stories intend that readers may believe the stories are true (Currie, 1990). In literature, fiction is significant in describing imaginary events and people.
Graphic novels are a contemporary literature form of long stories told in comics format. They have the same characteristics of comics: multimodality, cartooning techniques and elements (panels, gutters).
Heritage participation refers to a variety of practices that focus on involving the public in relation to cultural heritage. Some of these practices might support co-creation and empowerment, while other practices might merely inform or consult the public — two activities that are not always considered 'genuine' participation.
Hyperlinks are links from one hypertext document to another and usually consist of a highlighted word, phrase, or image. The term was used and elaborated on by Juliette De Maeyer in her article, 'Towards a hyperlinked society: A critical review of link studies'.
Meaning that emerges out of text-context relations. Apart from (often) having a denotational meaning, linguistic and other signs are indexical in that they suggest metapragmatic, metalinguistic, metadiscursive features of meaning. Thus, an utterance may indexically invoke social norms, roles, identities.
According to UNESCO, the concept of ‘intangible heritage’ can be described as “the practices, expressions, knowledge and skills that communities, groups and sometimes individuals recognise as part of their cultural heritage."
Media frames in the context of mass-media communication refers to the way interpretations of a message are encouraged or discouraged. It was first introduced by Erving Goffman in 1974 through his book, ‘Frame Analysis’.
Memes are “a group of digital items sharing common characteristics of content, form; created with awareness of each other; circulated, imitated and transformed via the internet by many” (Phillips, 2016).
A metaphor is a trope, or a figure of speech, that directly refers to one thing by mentioning features of another one; an object, or an idea, is viewed as a metaphor which offers people new ways of examining ideas and viewing the world.
Micro-populations are the material expression of temporary and emerging micro-hegemonies. They group people together by their ‘style’, by the places where they hang out and the places where you can’t find them.
Multimodality is frequently characterized as either the interaction among semiotic modes or the integration of semiotic modes or resources (Poulsen, 2014). It approaches comprehending communication and representation to be more than about language.
What is Culture?
Culture is people’s way of life. It could be communicable, which has to do with language, music and greetings, and non-communicable, which is in terms of food, and dressing, among others.
process of differentiation and demarcation, by which the line is drawn between ‟us” and ‟them” – between the more and the less powerful – and through which social distance is established and maintained (Lister 2004).
Overlexicalization refers to the repetitions of words in order to emphasise a certain concept or definition. It is a process where words are used to persuade and accentuate something within discourse. Often, these words are quasi-synonymous - referring to the same thing in a slightly different tone - and give a sense of overcompleteness. Overlexicalization can be recognised when words are placed within a discourse which aims to persuade and cause to believe in something.
The picturebook is a storytelling medium that presents its text in both verbal and visual language. According to Barbara Bader (1976), a picturebook is words and illustrations in a total design, “an item of manufacture and a commercial product; a social, cultural, historic document; and foremost, an experience for a [reader / beholder]. As an art form it hinges on the interdependence of pictures and words, on the simultaneous display of two facing pages, and on the drama of the turning page” (ibid., p.1).
Postcolonialism in children’s literature refers to literary works created for children by individuals living in former colonies. This term can also be applied to the analysis and reinterpretation of literary works written from a Western perspective, to present diverse viewpoints.
The public sphere is the realm of communication and debate that came to life with the emergence of mass communication in the form of a relatively small-scale and independent press in the 18th and 19th century.
Refugee literature refers to literary works, including fiction, non-fiction, poetry, and other forms of written expression, that focus on the experiences of refugees. These works often explore the challenges, struggles, and triumphs of individuals or groups who have been forced to leave their homes due to conflict, persecution, or other forms of hardship.
Weng Marc Lim defines the ‘selfie’ as “a self-expressive photograph featuring the photographer as the primary individual” in a “background that is consciously created, modified and shared with others”.
Social Media is “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content” (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010).
Speciesism is the biased belief in the superiority of some species over others. According to this prejudice some animal species are favoured over others, and the human animal is favoured above all other species.
Subcultures consist of people who participate in a lifestyle that is typically regarded as deviant in dominant society. Engagement in such deviant activities usher people to find other like-minded individuals and interact with them in order to build a culture. This helps in the development of perspectives about oneself with relation to others in society (Becker 1963).
Superdiversity (also written as super-diversity) refers to two major changes occurring across the world after the end of the Cold War: (a) new patterns of migration causing demographc changes, and (b) the emerging internet and its generalized spread, influencing all aspects of social, cultural and economic life.
Transmedia Storytelling is a concept that explains the distribution of media content across multiple media platforms. In a multi-layered media landscape, content is no longer confined to one medium, but rather works across media boundaries.