Actor-Network Theory is a theoretical and methodological approach that sees all social phenomena as the product of network interactions. It is unique in that it recognizes both objects and technologies as network nodes equal with human actants.
Algorithmic activism, when intentional, presupposes that the activists not only subscribe to the message they interact with, but also understand the affordances and the algorithmic construction of the medium.
Algorithmic populism refers to a new manifestation and form of populism in the digital age in which politicians use algorithms to construct, claim and redistribute the idea that they are articulating the voice of the people.
Animal rights is the idea that humans "do not have a right to use non-human animals for our own purposes, which include food, clothing, entertainment, and vivisection. This is based on a rejection of speciesism and the knowledge that animals are sentient beings." (Lin 2019)
The ‘Authorized Heritage Discourse’ (AHD) is a concept that was introduced by Laurajane Smith in 2006 to describe how attention is focused on “aesthetically pleasing material objects, sites, places and/or landscapes” through the dominance of “technical and aesthetic experts, and institutionalized in state cultural agencies and amenity societies”.
Cultural heritage is a “social and political construct encompassing all those places, artefacts and cultural expressions inherited from the past which, because they are seen to reflect and validate our identity as nations, communities, families and even individuals, are worthy of some form of respect and protection.”
Issue mapping is a concept to study the social connections made when actors interact and create bonds. It asks how a matter of “fact” becomes a matter of “concern” when connections are made, and can be an especially fruitful way to study online culture and phenomena.
Dual screening can be described as "the complex bundle of practices that involve integrating, and switching across and between, live broadcast media and social media” (Vaccari, Chadwick, & O'Loughlin, 2015).
ELLA stands for "Ethnographic Linguistic Landscape Analysis", and 2.0 points to the fact that offline signs are followed through to their online dimensions. ELLA 2.0 is, thus, online-offline Ethnographic Linguistic Landscape Analysis.
Heritage participation refers to a variety of practices that focus on involving the public in relation to cultural heritage. Some of these practices might support co-creation and empowerment, while other practices might merely inform or consult the public — two activities that are not always considered 'genuine' participation.
Hyperlinks are links from one hypertext document to another and usually consist of a highlighted word, phrase, or image. The term was used and elaborated on by Juliette De Maeyer in her article, 'Towards a hyperlinked society: A critical review of link studies'.
Meaning that emerges out of text-context relations. Apart from (often) having a denotational meaning, linguistic and other signs are indexical in that they suggest metapragmatic, metalinguistic, metadiscursive features of meaning. Thus, an utterance may indexically invoke social norms, roles, identities.
According to UNESCO, the concept of ‘intangible heritage’ can be described as “the practices, expressions, knowledge and skills that communities, groups and sometimes individuals recognise as part of their cultural heritage."
Media frames in the context of mass-media communication refers to the way interpretations of a message are encouraged or discouraged. It was first introduced by Erving Goffman in 1974 through his book, ‘Frame Analysis’.
Memes are “a group of digital items sharing common characteristics of content, form; created with awareness of each other; circulated, imitated and transformed via the internet by many” (Phillips, 2016).
Micro-populations are the material expression of temporary and emerging micro-hegemonies. They group people together by their ‘style’, by the places where they hang out and the places where you can’t find them.
Overlexicalization refers to the repetitions of words in order to emphasise a certain concept or definition. It is a process where words are used to persuade and accentuate something within discourse. Often, these words are quasi-synonymous - referring to the same thing in a slightly different tone - and give a sense of overcompleteness. Overlexicalization can be recognised when words are placed within a discourse which aims to persuade and cause to believe in something.
The public sphere is the realm of communication and debate that came to life with the emergence of mass communication in the form of a relatively small-scale and independent press in the 18th and 19th century.
Weng Marc Lim defines the ‘selfie’ as “a self-expressive photograph featuring the photographer as the primary individual” in a “background that is consciously created, modified and shared with others”.
Speciesism is the biased belief in the superiority of some species over others. According to this prejudice some animal species are favoured over others, and the human animal is favoured above all other species.
Superdiversity (also written as super-diversity) refers to two major changes occurring across the world after the end of the Cold War: (a) new patterns of migration causing demographc changes, and (b) the emerging internet and its generalized spread, influencing all aspects of social, cultural and economic life.
Transmedia Storytelling is a concept that explains the distribution of media content across multiple media platforms. In a multi-layered media landscape, content is no longer confined to one medium, but rather works across media boundaries.
The spreading of digital content, such as images, videos, or links, in a short period of time through online media such as Social Networking Sites (SNSs) and electronic mail, shared by a large number of people.
The concept of the ‘young adult’, also synonymous with adolescence and youth, is one which is heavily context-dependent. Over time, the perception of the concept has shifted from merely a developmental outlook to one which is also bound by a socio-cultural understanding. Broadly, it is believed to be a stage between childhood and adulthood, and is influenced by several social, economical and cultural factors.